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The Daghesh

Daghesh Lene

A dot placed within the six consonants (ב ג ד כ פ ת) that indicates retaining of the hard pronunciation is called a daghesh lene.
It must be placed within the six beghadh kephath letters (ב ג ד כ פ ת) when these letters are not preceded by a vowel or vocal shewa.

Daghesh Forte

The daghes forte is a dot placed within a consonant that double the letter. It cannot be used within the guttural consonants (ח ה ע א). It is always preceded by a vowel.

Identifying the Different Dagheshs within a Sentence

The daghesh forte is always immediately followed by a vowel where the daghesh lene is never immediately followed by a vowel sound.


Vocalization Mark

All of the consonant within a Hebrew word must have a vocalization mark, except for the final consonant.

Syllable Divider

Syllable divider is written in the same way as a Shewa   ְ  , but not pronounced. Its purpose is only to divide the syllables; hence it is referred to as a syllable divider.

Common Features

A Final ך always takes either a    ְ    or    ָ   .
Consonant always close the syllable except for the א and ה.
When א is the last letter of the word the syllable is open.
When ה is the final letter, the syllable remains open, expect when there is a Mappik within the consonant הּ.
The Mappik is a dot placed within the ה when it is the final letter of the word to indicate it closes the syllable; therefore, it is to be treated as a guttural rather than a silent vowel.
When ה ends a syllable, but is not the last letter of the word, it closes the syllable.


A Small Horizontal Line

A small horizontal line (־) placed between two words to show their connection in thought or utterance.

Integrates the Words Together

The makkeph integrates the words together, so their accent is always on the last word. Up to four words may be connected in this way, although typically it is just two.

Interrogative Particle

The Question Mark

The question mark is written as a prefixed הֲ to the first word of the sentence.

The Question Mark before a letter with a Shewa

When before a letter with a Shewa, it has a pathah (הַ) plus a dagesh within the following letter.

The Question Mark before a Guttural

When before a guttural it only has the pathah (הַ).

The Question Mark before a Guttural with a Kamets

When before a guttural with a kamets as its vowel, the queston mark is written with a seghol (הֶ).

The Sign of the Direct Object

A אֵת is used to indicate the direct object within a sentence when it is definite.

Not Translated

The אֵת is not translated and is always written as a separate word.

Joined with a Makkeph

When the direct object is joined with a makkeph, אֵת is pointed with a seghol (אֶת־).



The ultima is the last syllable of a word. This is where the main accent or tone of the word typically falls.


The penult is the syllable next to the last syllable of a word. There are some nouns and verbs that have the main accent or tone on the penult.
When the accent is on the penult, it is marked with a   ֣   under the vowel of the accented syllable.


Metheg indicated a second accent used in the same word. The position is naturally on the secondary accent, which would be the second or fourth syllables before the main tone. It is a small perpendicular mark   ֽ   under the syllable to the left of the vowel to be accented.


Pause is indicated a by a athnuah  ֑  or an silluk  ֽ  .
Silluk  ֽ  occurs in the last syllable and the athnah   ֑  on the principal tone or near the middle of the verse.
There are about thirty symbols used in the Hebrew text to indicate the tone of a syllable, punctuation marks, and musical notations that are not part of the vowel system.